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Significant areas of blanched varnish were found covering sections of the flowers, particularly the green leaves that were painted using green earth or terre verte
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Date: 2014-01-07
Viewing the painting using oblique, raking light helps to illuminate areas that remain covered by the thick, glossy varnish and overpaint. In this image only Abner's head, neck, and clothing has been cleaned.
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Date: 2014-01-07
In normal visible light other details were noted during the cleaning process. Curious striations and patterns became visible throughout Abner's head and neck; upon closer inspection the team realized that the artist had made a significant change in this area of the composition. From the tiny losses in Abner's face it is possible to detect a cool, grey color coming from underlying paint layers. Read more in the Infrared Reflectography and X-Radiography sections.)
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Date: 2014-01-10
Conservators and scientists will occasionally collect tiny microscopic <a href="http://www.artcons.udel.edu/about/kress/examination-techniques-and-scientific-terms/cross-sectional-microscopy" target="_blank">samples</a> from artwork in order to obtain a better understanding of the object's restoration history as well as the original materials used by the artist(s). Samples are often taken in conspicuous areas, such as near regions of existing loss or even along outer edges of a composition. In the case of the <i>Triumph of David</i>, there were multiple old tears and losses scattered throughout the painting allowing for the collection of several paint samples. These samples are then embedded in a clear resin and polished smooth, giving a cross-section view of the paint layers from the ground up under high magnification.<br/><br/>Cross-sectional samples obtained from the "Triumph of David" were prepared by Kristen Watts and Dr. Amanda Norbutus from Villanova University's Chemistry Department. Samples were imbedded in Extec(R) polyester resin/ hardener (approximately 10/ 0.5 ml) and subsequently analyzed under high magnification using a Nikon Eclipse 80i Binocular Microscope (4x, 10x, and 20x objectives) with a Nikon X-cite(R) 120 Mercury Lamp for reflected ultraviolet light. Under ultraviolet light, the samples were viewed using a BV-2A cube (excitation wavelengths between 400 and 420/ 470 nm barrier filter). Digital images were obtained using the Digital Eclipse DXM 1200f Nikon Camera in conjunction with the Automatic Camera Tamer control software for PC systems.
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Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the blue robe of the kneeling woman after a cleaning test was performed to remove the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as two to three layers of blue paint containing ultramarine (lapis lazuli) with small additions of lead white (visible light/100x magnification).
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Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the pink section of the robe worn by the kneeling woman after removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as two layers of red/pink paint containing vermillion, red lake, and lead white (visible light/100x magnification).
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Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the heavily overpainted face of the child in the bottom right corner. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as scattered remaining fragments of the original flesh paint. The thin, uppermost glaze was later confirmed to be unoriginal restoration paint (visible light/100x magnification).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the pink section of the robe worn by the kneeling woman after removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as two to three layers of paint; the light yellow paint may be the underlying flesh paint of the woman's back while the uppermost pink paint corresponds to the drapery (visible light/100x magnification).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the elbow of the kneeling woman before removal of the discolored overpaint. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as three layers of paint; the two paint layers directly atop the ground consist of lead white, vermillion, red lake, and naples yellow and represent the original flesh tones, while the uppermost layers was later confirmed to be unoriginal restoration paint (visible light/100x magnification).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the elbow of the kneeling woman before removal of the discolored overpaint. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as multiple layers of paint, indicating that the contour of the elbow underwent several changes during the painting process. The uppermost yellow paint layer was later confirmed to be unoriginal restoration paint (visible light/100x magnification).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the elbow of a female figure standing in the background after the removal of the discolored overpaint and surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as one to two layers of paint containing lead white, vermillion, red lake, and earth colors (visible light/100x magnification).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the heavily overpainted sky from the distant horizon. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as fragments of the original blue paint containing lead white and ultramarine (lapis lazuli). The thick, green-yellow paint layer was later confirmed to be unoriginal restoration paint (visible light/100x magnification).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from King Saul's red cloak before the removal of the discolored surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as one layer of red paint (containing vermillion, red lake, and earth colors) followed by a thin layer of a degraded surface coating (visible light/100x magnification).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the leg of one of the background soldiers before the removal of the discolored surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as two layers of paint; the dark colored layer represents the tiled floor depicted in the painting while the red-yellow layer corresponds to the figure's leg. The thin, uppermost layer represents the degraded surface coating (visible light/100x magnification).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the heavily overpainted hand of the kneeling woman in the bottom right corner. The red-brown ground can be seen (appearing damaged and rather fragmented) as well as scattered remaining fragments of the original paint layers corresponding to flesh tones of the hand (although compositional adjustments were likely made during the painting process). The thin, uppermost yellow-brown glaze was later confirmed to be unoriginal restoration paint (visible light/100x magnification).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the heavily overpainted background near the bottom right corner. The red-brown ground can be seen (appearing damaged and rather fragmented) as well as a thin layer of red paint followed by a thick layer of blue-black overpaint (visible light/100x magnification).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from an area in the tiled floor where a pentimento (also called pentimenti) became visible after removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by three paint layers; the first corresponds to the initial lay-in of the tiled floor, the second to the initial position of the soldier's foot, and the third to the tiled floor that is now visible in the composition (visible light/100x magnification). Pentimenti are original changes by the artist(s) and can become visible over time as oil paint layers become more transparent with age.
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Date: 2014-01-16