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  1. 161
    This sample was collected from the arm of the standing soldier near the left edge after removal of the overpaint and the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by several layers of paint, indicating that multiple adjustments were made to this area of the composition (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground as well as darker, lower layers of paint (perhaps corresponding to the underlying tunic or darker flesh tones along the contour of the arm) followed by lighter flesh tones. Later examination with x-radiography confirmed that the soldier's arm was enlarged during a later stage of the painting process.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-01-22
  2. 162
    This sample was collected from the black shield near the lower left corner after removal of the overpaint and the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by several layers of paint, indicating that multiple adjustments were made to this area of the composition (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground as well as several colored layers of paint beneath the uppermost layer containing bone black. Later examination with x-radiography confirmed that a hidden figure is present beneath the shield.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-01-22
  3. 163
    This sample was collected from the pink robe of the kneeling woman in the lower right corner before the complete removal of the discolored overpaint. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as three layers of paint; the light yellow paint may be the underlying flesh paint of the woman's back while the uppermost pink paint corresponds to the drapery (visible light/ultraviolet illumination/100x magnification). Red lake colorants were occasionally extracted from dyed textiles which may explain the presence of the curious shaped particle in the pink-colored paint layer. Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground; the lack of strong auto-fluorescence in the uppermost layer also supported later findings that confirmed that this layer was unoriginal overpaint.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-01-22
  4. 164
    This sample was collected from a white-blue highlight on Abner's helmet after the removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by several layers of paint, indicating that multiple adjustments were made to this area of the composition (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground as well as several colored layers of paint beneath the light-colored highlights. These yellow and red colored layers may correspond to initial position of Abner's head and helmet as later examination with x-radiography confirmed that major changes were made to this area during the final painting stages.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-01-22
  5. 165
    This sample was collected from the green-colored mountains in the distant background after removal of the overpaint and degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by a thin layer of green paint rich in yellow/green earth and lead white (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-01-22
  6. 166
    This sample was collected from the green-colored leaf from the flower garland after removal of the overpaint and degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by a thin layer of green paint rich in yellow/green earth and lead white with a trace of vermillion from the edge of the red flower (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground as well as a curious auto-fluorescent glaze layer between the paint and ground layers. This layer may correspond to a pigmented glaze/varnish layer that was applied to this area before the artist(s) began the painting process.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-01-22
  7. 167
    This sample was collected from the green-colored cushion on King Saul's throne before removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by a two thin layers of paint (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground, green earth particles in the paint layers, and the thick nature of the degraded surface coating in this particular section of the painting.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-01-22
  8. 168
    Dr. Amanda Norbutus hosting an "Art and Science" class in front of the painting (Pictured here: Dr. Amanda Norbutus with Villanova University Students).
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-01-28
  9. 169
    Continued with overpaint/varnish removal of top half of painting. The team began applying stable, reversible fills to areas of loss throughout the bottom section. Project featured on NPR's radio program "The Pulse."
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-02-01
  10. 170
  11. 171
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  15. 175
    Continued with overpaint/varnish removal throughout top half of painting as well as consolidation of flaking/insecure paint (Pictured here: Maggie Bearden.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-02-07
  16. 176
    During varnish removal, beautiful details were revealed in King Saul's face as well as the vibrant red of his cloak.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-02-07
  17. 177
    This area suffered from significant degrees of blanching in the varnish and darkened overpaint. During varnish removal, many of the original details were successfully recovered, including the braid that was obscured beneath the degraded varnish and the delicate details throughout the face.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2014-02-07
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