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    By temporarily saturating these areas with organic solvents, the team found that the paint and ground layers were intact beneath the degraded surface coating.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-10-29
  3. 43
    Continued with paint consolidation and overpaint/varnish removal throughout the bottom half of the painting.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-01
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    Mixtures of organic solvents were used to remove most of the superficial varnish layers. However, areas that were covered with thick applications of overpaint required the use of solvent gels to gently swell and remove the unoriginal restoration, revealing the original paint layers beneath (Pictured here: Maggie Bearden).
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-07
  10. 50
    The left and right edges are the most damaged areas of the painting and were therefore heavily overpainted during various restoration campaigns. A combination of free solvents and solvent gels were used to remove the darkened and discolored overpaint. This detail clearly shows how the overpaint was used to obscure old tears and losses to the painting layer throughout the torso of the standing soldier.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-07
  11. 51
    Heavy additions of overpaint were found covering the head and torso of the kneeling woman in the bottom right corner. Based on cross-sectional analysis, most of the overpaint in this area seems to have been applied during a 19th-century restoration campaign.
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-07
  12. 52
    Removal of Superificial Grime/Dust: A thick layer of grime/dust had accumulated on the verso of the canvas and was removed using a HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Arresting). Also shown in this image is the unoriginal wooden stretcher that was built for the canvas during the 1950s restoration campaign when the painting arrived at Villanova University (Pictured here: Kristin deGhetaldi).
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-16
  13. 53
    <a href="http://www.artcons.udel.edu/about/kress/examination-techniques-and-scientific-terms/x-ray-fluorescence" title="_blank">X-ray fluorescence (XRF)</a> is a non-destructive technique that provides elemental information (generally for elements that have an atomic weight above aluminum) that is representative of an artwork's surface. When applied to paintings, XRF can identify the presence of certain pigments (inorganic materials) using an x-ray energy source to help answer questions relating to authenticity and provenance. As the technique does not require sampling, XRF is an excellent preliminary method that can be used to help determine whether additional sampling is necessary. Today XRF units can be found in museums and institutions worldwide, with nearly 1500 units being used for cultural heritage applications.<br/><br/>Care should be taken when interpreting results as peaks can arise from other sources (such as the instrument itself): therefore consultation with a conservation scientist is essential. Other complications such as the use of metal driers (e.g. driers containing lead or manganese), pigments in underlying paint layers, and mordants present in organic colorants (e.g. Ca, Sn) can lead to misinterpretation. While the technique is relatively easy to perform, data interpretation is often more complicated and requires familiarity with both the artwork and the system being used.<br/><br/>A Bruker Handheld Tracer-III XRF spectrometer was used to collect the XRF spectra from various locations (spectra obtained by Kristen Watts and Dr. Amanda Norbutus from Villanova's Chemistry Department; interpretation by project leader Kristin deGhetaldi).
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-23
  14. 54
    Blue Sky (Before Cleaning Test) - Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides (Umbers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-23
  15. 55
    Blue Sky (After Cleaning Test) - Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides (Umbers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-23
  16. 56
    Green-Blue Dress - Possible Pigments: Lead White, Green Earth, Iron Oxides (Ground Layers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-23
  17. 57
    Possible Pigments: Green Earth, Lead White (attentuated peaks indicate Lead is in lower layers), Iron Oxides (Ground Layers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-23
  18. 58
    Woman's Flesh (Before Cleaning) - Possible Pigments: Lead White, Vermillion, Iron Oxides (Umbers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-23
  19. 59
    Blue Drapery (Before Cleaning) - Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides (Umbers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White and Chromium Yellow/Red (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-23
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    Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides, Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Vermillion<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
    timeline view   simple view
    Date: 2013-11-23