Showing 161 - 180 of 598 for search: '', query time: 0.06s
This sample was collected from an area in the tiled floor where a pentimento (also called pentimenti) became visible after removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by three paint layers; the first corresponds to the initial lay-in of the tiled floor, the second to the initial position of the soldier's foot, and the third to the tiled floor that is now visible in the composition (visible light/100x magnification). Pentimenti are original changes by the artist(s) and can become visible over time as oil paint layers become more transparent with age.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected along the outer left edge (the tacking margin) of the painting before the degraded overpaint/surface coating was removed from the soldier's red cloak. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by several layers of red paint, indicating that multiple adjustments were made to this area of the composition (visible light/100x magnification). The uppermost paint layer was later confirmed to be unoriginal restoration paint.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
This sample was collected from the shot-silk robe of the woman holding the tambourine after removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by two layers of paint; the greenish colored lower layer contains earth colors and lead white while the top layer contains lead white with small additions of ultramarine (visible light/100x magnification).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-16
Conservators and scientists will occasionally collect tiny microscopic <a href="http://www.artcons.udel.edu/about/kress/examination-techniques-and-scientific-terms/cross-sectional-microscopy">samples</a> from artwork in order to obtain a better understanding of the object's restoration history as well as the original materials used by the artist(s). Samples are often taken in conspicuous areas, such as near regions of existing loss or even along outer edges of a composition. In the case of the Triumph of David, there were multiple old tears and losses scattered throughout the painting allowing for the collection of several paint samples. These samples are then embedded in a clear resin and polished smooth, giving a cross-section view of the paint layers from the ground up under high magnification.<br/><br/>Samples can be viewed in visible and ultraviolet light as both types of illumination can reveal complementary information. Certain pigments may auto-fluoresce under ultraviolet light as well as certain organic materials like varnishes, glues, etc.<br/><br/>Cross-sectional samples subjected to both visible and ultraviolet illumination were prepared by Kristin deGhetaldi (project leader). Samples were imbedded in Extec(R) polyester resin/ hardener (approximately 10/ 0.5 ml) and subsequently analyzed under high magnification using a Nikon Eclipse 80i Binocular Microscope (4x, 10x, and 20x objectives) with a Nikon X-cite(R) 120 Mercury Lamp for reflected ultraviolet light. Under ultraviolet light, the samples were viewed using a BV-2A cube (excitation wavelengths between 400 and 420/ 470 nm barrier filter). Digital images were obtained using the Digital Eclipse DXM 1200f Nikon Camera in conjunction with the Automatic Camera Tamer control software for PC systems.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from the blue robe of the kneeling woman after removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as two to three layers of blue paint containing ultramarine (lapis lazuli) with small additions of lead white (visible light/ultraviolet light/200x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground as well as a thin, pigmented glaze between two layers of paint.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from an area of the sky after removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as two to three layers of blue paint containing ultramarine (lapis lazuli) with small additions of lead white (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground as well as a thin, pigmented glaze between two layers of paint (this particular area of the sky was painted using a layering system very similar to certain sections of the blue robe worn by the kneeling woman).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from a heavily overpainted back of the kneeling woman in the bottom right corner. by the kneeling woman after removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as two to three layers of paint; the lighter paint layers correspond to the original flesh tones while the uppermost layer represents the unoriginal restoration paint (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground; the lack of strong auto-fluorescence in the uppermost layer also supported later findings that confirmed that this layer was unoriginal overpaint.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from Abner's yellow ptergues (leather straps worn at the waist by Roman soldiers). The red-brown ground can be seen as well as two layers of paint (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground as well as a strongly auto-fluorescent red-colored glaze beneath the yellow paint containing yellow ochre and lead white.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from the blue robe worn by the kneeling woman in the lower right corner before removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as two layers of blue paint containing ultramarine (lapis lazuli) with small additions of lead white (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground; the bottom layer of blue paint can also be seen to contain very few contaminants indicating a higher grade of lapis lazuli was used. This thick blue layer is followed by a thinly applied layer of lapis mixed with lead white followed by the thick layer of degraded surface coating.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from the shot-silk robe of the woman holding the tambourine after removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by two thin layers of paint rich in earth colors (particularly green earth) and lead white (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from the soldier's red cloak near the lower left corner before the removal of the overpaint and the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by several layers of red paint, indicating that multiple adjustments were made to this area of the composition (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground while the uppermost paint layer was later confirmed to be unoriginal restoration paint; note that the overpaint is painted over the crack that runs through all of the original paint and ground layers.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from the arm of the standing soldier near the left edge after removal of the overpaint and the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by several layers of paint, indicating that multiple adjustments were made to this area of the composition (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground as well as darker, lower layers of paint (perhaps corresponding to the underlying tunic or darker flesh tones along the contour of the arm) followed by lighter flesh tones. Later examination with x-radiography confirmed that the soldier's arm was enlarged during a later stage of the painting process.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from the black shield near the lower left corner after removal of the overpaint and the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by several layers of paint, indicating that multiple adjustments were made to this area of the composition (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground as well as several colored layers of paint beneath the uppermost layer containing bone black. Later examination with x-radiography confirmed that a hidden figure is present beneath the shield.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from the pink robe of the kneeling woman in the lower right corner before the complete removal of the discolored overpaint. The red-brown ground can be seen as well as three layers of paint; the light yellow paint may be the underlying flesh paint of the woman's back while the uppermost pink paint corresponds to the drapery (visible light/ultraviolet illumination/100x magnification). Red lake colorants were occasionally extracted from dyed textiles which may explain the presence of the curious shaped particle in the pink-colored paint layer. Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground; the lack of strong auto-fluorescence in the uppermost layer also supported later findings that confirmed that this layer was unoriginal overpaint.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from a white-blue highlight on Abner's helmet after the removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by several layers of paint, indicating that multiple adjustments were made to this area of the composition (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground as well as several colored layers of paint beneath the light-colored highlights. These yellow and red colored layers may correspond to initial position of Abner's head and helmet as later examination with x-radiography confirmed that major changes were made to this area during the final painting stages.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from the green-colored mountains in the distant background after removal of the overpaint and degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by a thin layer of green paint rich in yellow/green earth and lead white (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from the green-colored leaf from the flower garland after removal of the overpaint and degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by a thin layer of green paint rich in yellow/green earth and lead white with a trace of vermillion from the edge of the red flower (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground as well as a curious auto-fluorescent glaze layer between the paint and ground layers. This layer may correspond to a pigmented glaze/varnish layer that was applied to this area before the artist(s) began the painting process.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
This sample was collected from the green-colored cushion on King Saul's throne before removal of the degraded surface coating. The red-brown ground can be seen followed by a two thin layers of paint (visible light/ultraviolet light/100x magnification). Ultraviolet illumination helped to reveal the presence of a double red-brown ground, green earth particles in the paint layers, and the thick nature of the degraded surface coating in this particular section of the painting.
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-22
Dr. Amanda Norbutus hosting an "Art and Science" class in front of the painting (Pictured here: Dr. Amanda Norbutus with Villanova University Students).
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-01-28
Continued with overpaint/varnish removal of top half of painting. The team began applying stable, reversible fills to areas of loss throughout the bottom section. Project featured on NPR's radio program "The Pulse."
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2014-02-01