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Heavy additions of overpaint were found covering the head and torso of the kneeling woman in the bottom right corner. Based on cross-sectional analysis, most of the overpaint in this area seems to have been applied during a 19th-century restoration campaign.
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Date: 2013-11-07
Date: 2013-11-08
Date: 2013-11-11
Removal of Superificial Grime/Dust: A thick layer of grime/dust had accumulated on the verso of the canvas and was removed using a HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Arresting). Also shown in this image is the unoriginal wooden stretcher that was built for the canvas during the 1950s restoration campaign when the painting arrived at Villanova University (Pictured here: Kristin deGhetaldi).
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Date: 2013-11-16
Date: 2013-11-18
<a href="http://www.artcons.udel.edu/about/kress/examination-techniques-and-scientific-terms/x-ray-fluorescence" title="_blank">X-ray fluorescence (XRF)</a> is a non-destructive technique that provides elemental information (generally for elements that have an atomic weight above aluminum) that is representative of an artwork's surface. When applied to paintings, XRF can identify the presence of certain pigments (inorganic materials) using an x-ray energy source to help answer questions relating to authenticity and provenance. As the technique does not require sampling, XRF is an excellent preliminary method that can be used to help determine whether additional sampling is necessary. Today XRF units can be found in museums and institutions worldwide, with nearly 1500 units being used for cultural heritage applications.<br/><br/>Care should be taken when interpreting results as peaks can arise from other sources (such as the instrument itself): therefore consultation with a conservation scientist is essential. Other complications such as the use of metal driers (e.g. driers containing lead or manganese), pigments in underlying paint layers, and mordants present in organic colorants (e.g. Ca, Sn) can lead to misinterpretation. While the technique is relatively easy to perform, data interpretation is often more complicated and requires familiarity with both the artwork and the system being used.<br/><br/>A Bruker Handheld Tracer-III XRF spectrometer was used to collect the XRF spectra from various locations (spectra obtained by Kristen Watts and Dr. Amanda Norbutus from Villanova's Chemistry Department; interpretation by project leader Kristin deGhetaldi).
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Date: 2013-11-23
Blue Sky (Before Cleaning Test) - Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides (Umbers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
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Date: 2013-11-23
Blue Sky (After Cleaning Test) - Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides (Umbers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
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Date: 2013-11-23
Green-Blue Dress - Possible Pigments: Lead White, Green Earth, Iron Oxides (Ground Layers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
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Date: 2013-11-23
Possible Pigments: Green Earth, Lead White (attentuated peaks indicate Lead is in lower layers), Iron Oxides (Ground Layers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
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Date: 2013-11-23
Woman's Flesh (Before Cleaning) - Possible Pigments: Lead White, Vermillion, Iron Oxides (Umbers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
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Date: 2013-11-23
Blue Drapery (Before Cleaning) - Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides (Umbers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White and Chromium Yellow/Red (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
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Date: 2013-11-23
Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides, Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Vermillion<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
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Date: 2013-11-23
Red Drapery - Possible Pigments: Lead White/Red Lead, Iron Oxides, Vermillion, Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
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Date: 2013-11-23
Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides, Vermillion, Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Barium White (Overpaint), Chromium Red/Yellow and Zinc White (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
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Date: 2013-11-23
Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides (Umbers), Vermillion, Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
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Date: 2013-11-23
Possible Pigments: Lead White/Naples Yellow, Iron Oxides, Vermillion, Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2013-11-23
Possible Pigments: Lead White, Green Earth/Iron Oxides (Umbers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2013-11-23
Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides, Vermillion, Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White and Barium White (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2013-11-23
Possible Pigments: Lead White, Iron Oxides (Umbers), Calcium Sulphate/Carbonate, Zinc White (Overpaint)<br/><br/>* Lapis Lazuli and Organic Pigments (e.g. Lakes, Dyestuff, etc.) are difficult to detect with XRF
timeline view   simple view
Date: 2013-11-23